Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products

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Horse milk also contains comparable milk sugar levels. Like horses, reindeer have also been a source of both milk and meat for humans. Reindeer herding has existed in the northern part of Eurasia for thousands of years. While milking was largely abandoned in the early s, remnants of the practice can be found still in southeastern Siberia and by the Sami people, an indigenous group found in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. Reindeer milk can be drunk fresh, often diluted with water and used in tea and coffee, or fermented into a sour cream.

It has a low amount of lactose, which actually works well for the Sami people, who are generally lactose intolerant. To preserve the reindeer milk, "[they would store] the milk on cool sites in wooden containers for use the next winter or during spring migration," Park's book states. The milk was also stored by freezing it, and it was sometimes mixed with berries. Reindeer dairy allegedly has anti-diarrheal properties, and the fat derived from reindeer cheese was once used to cure frostbites. As far as health considerations go, Park notes that camel milk is among one of the most therapeutic milks out there.

He is especially fond of the camel. But it's not just their resilience that's worth commending—it's also the antiviral properties of their milk. Raw camel milk has been shown to prevent rotavirus infections which causes deadly diarrhea. In Kazakhstan, camel milk is called shubat. One scientific study of shubat found that that beverage had antiviral properties against viruses associated with respiratory ailments and diseases like measles and mumps. Shubat is also used to treat tuberculosis in India, Libya, and Kazakhstan. In the former USSR, it was reported that it helped improve the conditions of people suffering from chronic hepatitis.

Non-bovine milks also outshine cow milk when it comes to nutrient density. Yak milk can have twice as much fat as that of cows. In China, the Tibetans and Kyrgyz nomads produce yak dairy on the regular. Yak milk is consumed habitually. For Tibetans, yak butter is a food staple—often stirred into tea or mixed with highland barley to form a paste called tsampa. The yogurt is significantly creamier than cow yogurt. The cheese, however, isn't for everyone. When I sampled yak cheese, made fresh by a Kyrgyz nomadic woman in Western China, I found it to be quite sour and foul.

It's made into a cube and is rock hard—meant to be a portable snack. Photo by Caroline Gutman. I was disappointed to find that Park's handbook doesn't contain much information on bear milk, as it is not historically consumed by humans. But there was a study that found polar bear milk to be creamy with a strong fishy odor, while " the grizzly milk was pale yellow and had the consistency of thick cream and the odor of fresh bovine milk.

Goat milk is consumed by more people around the world than any other milk and has become a dairy staple for the poor and subsistence farmers. Generally, goats are more adaptable and can survive in harsh and poor environmental conditions, from deserts to icy mountains. Their milk is generally easier to digest than cow's milk and has higher amounts of vitamin A.

Also, compared to the cow, goats have a lower carbon footprint. When eating grass, they don't tear out the root system of the plants and they require less space than cattle. According to the U. National Bison Association, American bison also called American buffalo are not milked commercially; [61] however, various sources report cows resulting from cross-breeding bison and domestic cattle are good milk producers, and have been used both during the European settlement of North America [62] and during the development of commercial Beefalo in the s and s.

Swine are almost never milked, even though their milk is similar to cow's milk and perfectly suitable for human consumption. The main reasons for this are that milking a sow's numerous small teats is very cumbersome, and that sows can not store their milk as cows can. In , the largest producer of milk and milk products was India followed by the United States of America, China, Pakistan and Brazil.

Increasing affluence in developing countries, as well as increased promotion of milk and milk products, has led to a rise in milk consumption in developing countries in recent years. In turn, the opportunities presented by these growing markets have attracted investments by multinational dairy firms. Nevertheless, in many countries production remains on a small scale and presents significant opportunities for diversification of income sources by small farms.

The survey found that the average herd size in these developed countries increased from 74 to 99 cows per herd between and A dairy farm had an average of 19 cows per herd in Norway, and in New Zealand. The milk yield per cow depended on production systems, nutrition of the cows, and only to a minor extent different genetic potential of the animals.

What the cow ate made the most impact on the production obtained. New Zealand cows with the lowest yield per year grazed all year, in contrast to Israel with the highest yield where the cows ate in barns with an energy-rich mixed diet. It was reported in that with increased worldwide prosperity and the competition of bio-fuel production for feed stocks, both the demand for and the price of milk had substantially increased worldwide.

Particularly notable was the rapid increase of consumption of milk in China and the rise of the price of milk in the United States above the government subsidized price. The consumption of cow's milk poses numerous threats to the natural environment. Compared to plant milks , cow's milk requires the most land and water, [81] and its production results in the greatest amount of greenhouse gas GHG emissions, air pollution, and water pollution. The global water footprint of animal agriculture is 2, billion cubic meters of water one-fourth of the total global water footprint , 19 percent of which is related to dairy cattle.

A Food and Agriculture Organization report found that the global dairy sector contributes to four percent of the total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. This figure includes emissions allotted to milk production, processing and transportation, and the emissions from fattening and slaughtering dairy cows. It is estimated that cows produce between and liters of methane a day. Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.

The principal requirements are energy lipids, lactose, and protein , biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids supplied by proteins essential amino acids and amino groups , essential fatty acids, vitamins and inorganic elements, and water. The pH of milk ranges from 6. Milk from other bovines and non-bovine mammals varies in composition, but has a similar pH. Initially milk fat is secreted in the form of a fat globule surrounded by a membrane.

These act as emulsifiers which keep the individual globules from coalescing and protect the contents of these globules from various enzymes in the fluid portion of the milk. Unlike protein and carbohydrates, fat composition in milk varies widely in the composition due to genetic, lactational, and nutritional factor difference between different species. Like composition, fat globules vary in size from less than 0. Diameter may also vary between animals within a species and at different times within a milking of a single animal.

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In unhomogenized cow's milk, the fat globules have an average diameter of two to four micrometers and with homogenization, average around 0. Total proteins in milk represent 3. The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are "casein micelles" : aggregates of several thousand protein molecules with superficial resemblance to a surfactant micelle , bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate. Each casein micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across.

Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There are several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, but they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of one type of protein, k-casein , reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid. These kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under normal conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surrounding fluid.

Milk contains dozens of other types of proteins beside caseins and including enzymes. These other proteins are more water-soluble than caseins and do not form larger structures. Because the proteins remain suspended in whey remaining when caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey proteins. Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin. Minerals or milk salts, are traditional names for a variety of cations and anions within bovine milk. Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chloride are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentration of 5—40 mM.

The milk salts strongly interact with casein, most notably calcium phosphate. It is present in excess and often, much greater excess of solubility of solid calcium phosphate. For many years the most accepted theory of the structure of a micelle was that it was composed of spherical casein aggregates, called submicelles, that were held together by calcium phosphate linkages. However, there are two recent models of the casein micelle that refute the distinct micellular structures within the micelle.

The first theory attributed to de Kruif and Holt, proposes that nanoclusters of calcium phosphate and the phosphopeptide fraction of beta-casein are the centerpiece to micellular structure. Specifically in this view, unstructured proteins organize around the calcium phosphate giving rise to their structure and thus no specific structure is formed. The second theory proposed by Horne, the growth of calcium phosphate nanoclusters begins the process of micelle formation but is limited by binding phosphopeptide loop regions of the caseins.

Once bound, protein-protein interactions are formed and polymerization occurs, in which K-casein is used as an end cap, to form micelles with trapped calcium phosphate nanoclusters. Some sources indicate that the trapped calcium phosphate is in the form of Ca9 PO4 6; whereas, others say it is similar to the structure of the mineral brushite CaHPO4 -2H2O. Milk contains several different carbohydrate including lactose , glucose , galactose , and other oligosaccharides. Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars , glucose and galactose. Bovine milk averages 4.

Levels of lactose are dependent upon the type of milk as other carbohydrates can be present at higher concentrations than lactose in milks. Other components found in raw cow's milk are living white blood cells , mammary gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes. Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of milk. The fat globules contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds such as Guernsey and Jersey cattle to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of milk.

The riboflavin in the whey portion of milk has a greenish color, which sometimes can be discerned in skimmed milk or whey products. In most Western countries, centralized dairy facilities process milk and products obtained from milk , such as cream, butter, and cheese. In the U. Pasteurization is used to kill harmful pathogenic bacteria by heating the milk for a short time and then immediately cooling it.

Types of pasteurized milk include full cream, reduced fat, skim milk, calcium enriched, flavored, and UHT. A side effect of the heating of pasteurization is that some vitamin and mineral content is lost. The loss of vitamin C is not nutritionally significant, as milk is not an important dietary source of vitamin C. Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk.

In this process, cream is separated from the skimmed milk and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the skimmed milk is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap Ultrafiltration uses finer filters than microfiltration, which allow lactose and water to pass through while retaining fats, calcium and protein. Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer.

The cream often is sold as a separate product with its own uses. Today the separation of the cream from the milk usually is accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water.

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The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow's milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters as readily and are smaller to begin with, resulting in a slower separation of cream from these milks.

Milk often is homogenized , a treatment that prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly exposed fat surfaces. Nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation. The exposed fat globules are vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors.

To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization. Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogenized. It is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors. It may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk that has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as "ultra-homogenized", has a longer shelf life than milk that has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures.

The homogenization process increases the shelf life of milk because it decreases the radius of fat globules and other particles per Stokes's law thus delaying the rate of agglomeration. Ultra Heat Treatment UHT , is a type of milk processing where all bacteria are destroyed with high heat to extend its shelf life for up to 6 months, as long as the package is not opened. Milk is firstly homogenized and then is heated to degrees Celsius for 1—3 seconds. The milk is immediately cooled down and packed into a sterile container.

As a result of this treatment, all the pathogenic bacteria within the milk are destroyed, unlike when the milk is just pasteurised. The milk will now keep for up for 6 months if unopened. UHT milk does not need to be refrigerated until the package is opened, which makes it easier to ship and store. But in this process there is a loss of vitamin B1 and vitamin C and there is also a slight change in the taste of the milk. The composition of milk differs widely among species. Factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of the curd are among those that may vary.

The protein range for these four breeds is 3. Milk fat percentages may be manipulated by dairy farmers' stock diet formulation strategies. Mastitis infection can cause fat levels to decline. Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters. Processed cow's milk was formulated to contain differing amounts of fat during the s. The U. This recommendation is disputed by some health researchers who call for more study of the issue, given that there are other sources for calcium and vitamin D.

The researchers also claim that the recommendations have been unduly influenced by the American dairy industry, [] and that whole milk may be better for health due to its increased ability to satiate hunger. A review found evidence suggesting that consumption of milk is effective at promoting muscle growth. The amount of calcium from milk that is absorbed by the human body is disputed.

Milk as a calcium source has been questioned in media, but scientific research is lacking to support the hypothesis of acidosis induced by milk. The hypothesis in question being that acidosis would lead to leaching of calcium storages in bones to neutralize pH levels also known as acid-ash hypothesis. Research has found no link between metabolic acidosis and consumption of milk.

A meta-analysis examining whether milk consumption might protect against hip fracture in middle-aged and older adults found no association between drinking milk and lower rates of fractures. Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk, must be cleaved in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase , in order for its constituents, galactose and glucose , to be absorbed.

Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to not enough of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines. These may include abdominal pain, bloating , diarrhea , gas, and nausea. Severity depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Primary lactose intolerance is when the amount of lactase decline as people age. Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease , inflammatory bowel disease , or other diseases.

Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth. The number of people with lactose intolerance is unknown. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. This ability, which allows them to digest lactose into adulthood, is called lactase persistence. The distribution of people with lactase persistence is not homogeneous in the world.

Milk and dairy products have the potential for causing serious infection in newborn infants. Unpasteurized milk and cheeses can promote the growth of Listeria bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes can also cause serious infection in an infant and pregnant woman and can be transmitted to her infant in utero or after birth. The infection has the potential of seriously harming or even causing the death of a preterm infant , an infant of low or very low birth weight , or an infant with a congenital defect of the immune system.

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The presence of this pathogen can sometimes be determined by the symptoms that appear as a gastrointestinal illness in the mother. The mother can also acquire infection from ingesting food that contains other animal products such as hot dogs , delicatessen meats , and cheese. Cow's milk allergy CMA is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction , rarely fatal, to one or more cow's milk proteins. Milk must be offered at every meal if a United States school district wishes to get reimbursement from the federal government.

Of the milk served in U. Though some flavored milk products use artificial sweeteners instead.


The Boulder, Colorado, school district banned flavored milk in and instead installed a dispenser that keeps the milk colder. The mammary gland is thought to have derived from apocrine skin glands. Much of the argument is based on monotremes egg-laying mammals. Tritylodontid cynodonts seem to have displayed lactation, based on their dental replacement patterns. Cows produce bovine growth hormone naturally, but some producers administer an additional recombinant version of BGH which is produced through genetically engineered E.

Bovine growth hormone also stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF1. Food and Drug Administration , [] the National Institutes of Health [] and the World Health Organization [] have reported that both of these compounds are safe for human consumption at the amounts present. Cows receiving rBGH supplements may more frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis. Mastitis, among other diseases, may be responsible for the fact that levels of white blood cells in milk vary naturally.

Vegans and some other vegetarians do not consume milk for reasons mostly related to animal rights and environmental concerns. They may object to features of dairy farming including the necessity of keeping dairy cows pregnant, the killing of almost all the male offspring of dairy cows either by disposal soon after birth, for veal production, or for beef , the routine separation of mother and calf soon after birth, other perceived inhumane treatment of dairy cattle, and culling of cows after their productive lives.

It is often argued that it is unnatural for humans to drink milk from cows or other animals because mammals normally do not drink milk beyond the weaning period, nor do they drink milk from another species. Some have criticized the American government's promotion of milk consumption. Their main concern is the financial interest that the American government has taken in the dairy industry, promoting milk as the best source of calcium.

Milk production is also resource intensive. On a global weighted average, for the production of a given volume of milk, a thousand times as much water has to be used. Milk preserved by the UHT process does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a much longer shelf life six months than milk in ordinary packaging. It is typically sold unrefrigerated in the UK, U. Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to an inert carrier.

Once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill effects. The only noticeable difference from regular milk is a slightly sweeter taste due to the generation of glucose by lactose cleavage. It does not, however, contain more glucose, and is nutritionally identical to regular milk. Lactose of low-lactose level cow's milk products, ranging from ice cream to cheese, is enzymatically hydrolysed into glucose and galactose.

The ultra-pasteurization process, combined with aseptic packaging, ensures a long shelf life. In , Valio launched a lactose-free milk drink that is not sweet like HYLA milk but has the fresh taste of ordinary milk. Valio patented the chromatographic separation method to remove lactose. Valio also markets these products in Sweden , Estonia , Belgium , [] and the United States, where the company says ultrafiltration is used. In the UK, where an estimated 4. Lactose-free and lactose-reduced milk can also be produced via ultra filtration , which removes smaller molecules such as lactose and water while leaving calcium and proteins behind.

Milk produced via these methods has a lower sugar content than regular milk. In areas where the cattle and often the people live indoors, commercially sold milk commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation. Reduced-fat milks often have added vitamin A palmitate to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduced fat milks having a higher vitamin A content than whole milk.

Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate milk has been sold for many years and has been followed more recently by strawberry milk and others.

Milk and Milk products

Some nutritionists have criticized flavored milk for adding sugar, usually in the form of high-fructose corn syrup , to the diets of children who are already commonly obese in the U. Due to the short shelf life of normal milk, it used to be delivered to households daily in many countries; however, improved refrigeration at home, changing food shopping patterns because of supermarkets, and the higher cost of home delivery mean that daily deliveries by a milkman are no longer available in most countries.

With time, due to the steadily increasing cost of collecting, transporting, storing and cleaning glass bottles, they were replaced by cardboard cartons. A number of designs were used, including a tetrahedron which could be close-packed without waste space, and could not be knocked over accidentally. However, the industry eventually settled on a design similar to that used in the United States.

A significant addition to the marketplace has been "long-life" milk UHT , generally available in 1 and 2 liter rectangular cardboard cartons. In urban and suburban areas where there is sufficient demand, home delivery is still available, though in suburban areas this is often 3 times per week rather than daily. Another significant and popular addition to the marketplace has been flavored milks — for example, as mentioned above, Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola in South Australia. In rural India , milk is home delivered, daily, by local milkmen carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle.

In other parts of metropolitan India , milk is usually bought or delivered in plastic bags or cartons via shops or supermarkets. The current milk chain flow in India is from milk producer to milk collection agent. Then it is transported to a milk chilling center and bulk transported to the processing plant, then to the sales agent and finally to the consumer.

9 cheeses not made from cow's milk

The study found that due to lack of hygiene and sanitation in milk handling and packaging, detergents used during cleaning operations were not washed properly and found their way into the milk. In Pakistan , milk is supplied in jugs. Milk has been a staple food, especially among the pastoral tribes in this country. Since the late s, milk-buying patterns have changed drastically in the UK. The classic milkman , who travels his local milk round route using a milk float often battery powered during the early hours and delivers milk in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops directly to households, has almost disappeared.

Two of the main reasons for the decline of UK home deliveries by milkmen are household refrigerators which lessen the need for daily milk deliveries and private car usage which has increased supermarket shopping. Another factor is that it is cheaper to purchase milk from a supermarket than from home delivery. In , more than 2. Milk is hardly ever sold in glass bottles in UK shops. In the United States, glass milk bottles have been replaced mostly with milk cartons and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while half gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and smaller sizes are almost always in cartons.

Glass milk bottles are now rare. Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic bottles, or plastic-coated paper cartons. Ultraviolet UV light from fluorescent lighting can alter the flavor of milk, so many companies that once distributed milk in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the UV light. Milk comes in a variety of containers with local variants:. When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns " sour ".

Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products - 1st Edition

This is the result of fermentation , where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk into lactic acid. Prolonged fermentation may render the milk unpleasant to consume. This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures e. Lactobacilli sp. The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and causes the milk to undergo a variety of different transformations in appearance and texture, ranging from an aggregate to smooth consistency.

Some of these products include sour cream , yogurt , cheese, buttermilk , viili , kefir , and kumis. See Dairy product for more information. Pasteurization of cow's milk initially destroys any potential pathogens and increases the shelf life, [] [] but eventually results in spoilage that makes it unsuitable for consumption. This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor , and the milk is deemed non-consumable due to unpleasant taste and an increased risk of food poisoning.

In raw milk, the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid. The increasing acidity in turn prevents the growth of other organisms, or slows their growth significantly. During pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed. Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets.

The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature UHT treatment. Milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened but has a characteristic "cooked" taste. Condensed milk , made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated milk. The most durable form of milk is powdered milk , which is produced from milk by removing almost all water. Freezing of milk can cause fat globule aggregation upon thawing, resulting in milky layers and butterfat lumps. These can be dispersed again by warming and stirring the milk.

Milk is used to make yogurt , cheese, ice milk , pudding , hot chocolate and french toast. Milk is often added to dry breakfast cereal , porridge and granola. Milk is often served in coffee and tea. Steamed milk is used to prepare espresso -based drinks such as cafe latte. The importance of milk in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressions embedded in our languages, for example, "the milk of human kindness", the expression "there's no use crying over spilt milk" which means don't "be unhappy about what cannot be undone" , "don't milk the ram" this means "to do or attempt something futile" and "Why buy a cow when you can get milk for free?

In Greek mythology , the Milky Way was formed after the trickster god Hermes suckled the infant Heracles at the breast of Hera , the queen of the gods, while she was asleep. In many African and Asian countries, butter is traditionally made from fermented milk rather than cream.

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  • It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk. Holy books have also mentioned milk. The Bible contains references to the " Land of Milk and Honey. The Ramadan fast is traditionally broken with a glass of milk and dates. Abhisheka is conducted by Hindu and Jain priests, by pouring libations on the idol of a deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras. Usually offerings such as milk, yogurt , ghee , honey may be poured among other offerings depending on the type of abhishekam being performed.

    A milksop is an "effeminate spiritless man," an expression which is attested to in the late 14th century. Its soft blandness served as inspiration for the name of the timid and ineffectual comic strip character Caspar Milquetoast , drawn by H. Webster from to Milk toast also appeared in Disney's Follow Me Boys as an undesirable breakfast for the aging main character Lem Siddons. To "milk" someone, in the vernacular of many English-speaking countries, is to take advantage of the person, by analogy to the way a farmer "milks" a cow and takes its milk.

    Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    The word "milk" has had many slang meanings over time. In the 19th century, milk was used to describe a cheap and very poisonous alcoholic drink made from methylated spirits methanol mixed with water. The word was also used to mean defraud, to be idle, to intercept telegrams addressed to someone else, and a weakling or "milksop. Besides serving as a beverage or source of food, milk has been described as used by farmers and gardeners as an organic fungicide and fertilizer, [] [] [] however, its effectiveness is debated.

    Diluted milk solutions have been demonstrated to provide an effective method of preventing powdery mildew on grape vines, while showing it is unlikely to harm the plant.